Cellulose Nanocrystals and Corn Zein Oxygen and Water Vapor Barrier Biocomposite Films
. Nanomaterials 2021
. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) are well-suited to the preparation of biocomposite films and packaging material due to its abundance, renewability, biodegradability, and favorable film-forming capacity. In this study, different CNC and corn zein (CZ) composite films were prepared by adding CZ to the CNC suspension prior to drying, in order to change internal structure of resulting films. Films were developed to examine their performance as an alternative water vapor and oxygen-barrier for flexible packaging industry. Water vapor permeability (WVP) and oxygen transmission rate (OTR) of the biocomposite films decreased significantly in a specific ratio between CNC and CZ combined with 1,2,3,4-butane tetracarboxylic acid (BTCA), a nontoxic cross linker. In addition to the improved barrier properties, the incorporation of CZ benefitted the flexibility and thermal stability of the CNC/CZ composite films. The toughness increased by 358%, and Young’s modulus decreased by 32% compared with the pristine CNC film. The maximum degradation temperature increased by 26 °C, compared with that of CNC film. These results can be attributed to the incorporation of a hydrophobic protein into the matrix creating hydrophobic interactions among the biocomposite components. SEM and AFM analysis indicated that CZ could significantly affect the CNC arrangement, and the film surface topography, due to the mechanical bundling and physical adsorption effect of CZ to CNC. The presented results indicate that CNC/CZ biocomposite films may find applications in packaging, and in multi-functionalization materials.
A nanoscale paper-based near-infrared optical nose (NIRON)
. Biosensors and Bioelectronics 2021
, 112763. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Electronic noses (e-nose) and optical noses (o-nose) are two emerging approaches for the development of artificial olfactory systems for flavor and smell evaluation. The current work leverages the unique optical properties of semiconducting single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) to develop a prototype of a novel paper-based near-infrared optical nose (NIRON). We have drop-dried an array of SWCNTs encapsulated with a wide variety of peptides on a paper substrate and continuously imaged the emitted SWCNTs fluorescence using a CMOS camera. Odors and different volatile molecules were passed above the array in a flow chamber, resulting in unique modulation patterns of the SWCNT photoluminescence (PL). Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurements performed in parallel confirmed the direct binding between the vapor molecules and the peptide-SWCNTs. PL levels measured before and during exposure demonstrate distinct responses to the four tested alcoholic vapors (ethanol, methanol, propanol, and isopropanol). In addition, machine learning tools directly applied to the fluorescence images allow us to distinguish between the aromas of red wine, beer, and vodka. Further, we show that the developed sensor can detect limonene, undecanal, and geraniol vapors, and differentiate between their smells utilizing the PL response pattern. This novel paper-based optical biosensor provides data in real-time, and is recoverable and suitable for working at room temperature and in a wide range of humidity levels. This platform opens new avenues for real-time sensing of volatile chemical compounds, odors, and flavors.
Species-independent analytical tools for next-generation agriculture
1408 - 1417. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Innovative approaches are urgently required to alleviate the growing pressure on agriculture to meet the rising demand for food. A key challenge for plant biology is to bridge the notable knowledge gap between our detailed understanding of model plants grown under laboratory conditions and the agriculturally important crops cultivated in fields or production facilities. This Perspective highlights the recent development of new analytical tools that are rapid and non-destructive and provide tissue-, cell- or organelle-specific information on living plants in real time, with the potential to extend across multiple species in field applications. We evaluate the utility of engineered plant nanosensors and portable Raman spectroscopy to detect biotic and abiotic stresses, monitor plant hormonal signalling as well as characterize the soil, phytobiome and crop health in a non- or minimally invasive manner. We propose leveraging these tools to bridge the aforementioned fundamental gap with new synthesis and integration of expertise from plant biology, engineering and data science. Lastly, we assess the economic potential and discuss implementation strategies that will ensure the acceptance and successful integration of these modern tools in future farming practices in traditional as well as urban agriculture.
Fabrication of Second Skin from Keratin and Melanin
. Polymers 2020
. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Second skin is a topically applied, skin-conforming material that mimics human skin properties and bears potential cosmetic and e-skin applications. To successfully integrate with natural skin, characteristics such as color and skin features must be matched. In this work, we prepared bio-based skin-like films from cross-linked keratin/melanin films (KMFs), using a simple fabrication method and non-toxic materials. The films retained their stability in aqueous solutions, showed skin-like mechanical properties, and were homogenous and handleable, with non-granular surfaces and a notable cross-linked structure as determined by attenuated total reflection (ATR). In addition, the combination of keratin and melanin allowed for adjustable tones similar to those of natural human skin. Furthermore, KMFs showed light transmittance and UV-blocking (up to 99%) as a function of melanin content. Finally, keratin/melanin ink (KMI) was used to inkjet-print high-resolution images with natural skin pigmented features. The KMFs and KMI may offer advanced solutions as e-skin or cosmetics platforms.
Regeneration of Grade 3 Ankle Sprain, Using the Recombinant Human Amelogenin Protein (rHAM+), in a Rat Model
. Journal of Orthopaedic Research 2020
. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Abstract Lateral ligament tears, also known as high-grade ankle sprains, are common, debilitating, and usually heal slowly. 10-30% of patients continue to suffer from chronic pain and ankle instability even after 3-9 months. Previously, we showed that the recombinant human amelogenin (rHAM+) induced regeneration of fully transected rat medial collateral ligament (MCL), a common proof-of-concept model. Our aim was to evaluate whether rHAM+ can regenerate torn ankle calcaneo-fibular ligament (CFL), an important component of the lateral ankle stabilizers. Right CFLs of Sabra rats were transected and treated with 0, 0.5 or 1µg/µl rHAM+ dissolved in propylene glycol alginate (PGA). Results were compared to the normal group, without surgery. Healing was evaluated 12 weeks after treatment by mechanical testing (ratio between the right and left, un-transected ligaments of the same rat), and histology including immunohistochemical staining of collagen I and S100. The mechanical properties, structure, and composition of transected ligaments treated with 0.5μg/μl rHAM+ (experimental) were similar to un-transected ligaments. PGA (control) treated ligaments were much weaker, lax and unorganized compared to un-transected ligaments. Treatment with 1μg/μl rHAM+ was not as efficient as 0.5μg/μl rHAM+. Normal arrangement of collagen I fibers and of proprioceptive nerve endings, parallel to the direction of the force, was detected in ligaments treated with 0.5μg/μl rHAM+, and scattered arrangement, resembling scar tissue, in control ligaments. In conclusion, we showed that rHAM+ induced significant mechanical and structural regeneration of torn rat CFLs, which might be translated into treatment for grade 2-3 ankle sprain injuries. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Additive Manufacturing of 3D Structures Composed of Wood Materials
. Advanced Materials Technologies 2019
. Publisher's VersionAbstract
3D objects composed of 100% wood components are 3D printed utilizing wood flour microparticles dispersed in a matrix composed of cellulose nanocrystals and xyloglucan. In the printed object, a wood waste product is “glued” with extracted wood products, to be a substitute for pristine wood. 3D printing is used to maximize conversion of low value materials into final products that exhibit visual, textural, and physical properties of natural timber. Several 3D printing technologies are applied to achieve a wide range of densities, mechanical properties, colors, and morphologies as well as high thermal insulation. Furthermore, the 3D printing process enables predesigning of fiber layout in the printed wood, which enables control of shrinkage orientation. © 2019 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
A BMP/activin A chimera is superior to native BMPs and induces bone repair in nonhuman primates when delivered in a composite matrix
. Science Translational Medicine 2019
. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)/carriers approved for orthopedic procedures achieve efficacy superior or equivalent to autograft bone. However, required supraphysiological BMP concentrations have been associated with potential local and systemic adverse events. Suboptimal BMP/receptor binding and rapid BMP release from approved carriers may contribute to these outcomes. To address these issues and improve efficacy, we engineered chimeras with increased receptor binding by substituting BMP-6 and activin A receptor binding domains into BMP-2 and optimized a carrier for chimera retention and tissue ingrowth. BV-265, a BMP-2/BMP-6/activin A chimera, demonstrated increased binding affinity to BMP receptors, including activin-like kinase-2 (ALK2) critical for bone formation in people. BV-265 increased BMP intracellular signaling, osteogenic activity, and expression of bone-related genes in murine and human cells to a greater extent than BMP-2 and was not inhibited by BMP antagonist noggin or gremlin. BV-265 induced larger ectopic bone nodules in rats compared to BMP-2 and was superior to BMP-2, BMP-2/6, and other chimeras in nonhuman primate bone repair models. A composite matrix (CM) containing calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite granules suspended in a macroporous, fenestrated, polymer mesh–reinforced recombinant human type I collagen matrix demonstrated improved BV-265 retention, minimal inflammation, and enhanced handling. BV-265/CM was efficacious in nonhuman primate bone repair models at concentrations ranging from 1 / 10 to 1 / 30 of the BMP-2/absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) concentration approved for clinical use. Initial toxicology studies were negative. These results support evaluations of BV-265/CM as an alternative to BMP-2/ACS in clinical trials for orthopedic conditions requiring augmented healing. Copyright © 2019 The Authors.
Highly charged cellulose nanocrystals applied as a water treatment flocculant
. Nanomaterials 2019
. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Various cellulosic materials have replaced petroleum-derived polymers, offering natural and sustainable alternatives. Among them, cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) feature an easily modifiable surface, enabling the exploration of a wide spectrum of applications. In this work, the quaternary agent 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride (CHPTAC) was used as a cationic graft on CNCs, to form a novel water treatment flocculant. The resulting material was chemically and structurally characterized by the determination of Zeta potential; degree of substitution by elemental analysis; hydrodynamic size by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and infrared spectroscopy with Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR); and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The flocculation capacity of cationic cellulose nanocrystals (CNC-EPTMAC) was evaluated in a jar test filled with an 0.25 wt.% silica (SiO2) suspension. CNC-EPTMAC proved to be an effective water treatment flocculant, reducing turbidity by up to 99.7% at a concentration of only 2 ppm. This work demonstrates a natural and environmentally sustainable alternative to homologous commercial flocculants. © 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
Production and Characterization of Recombinant Collagen-Binding Resilin Nanocomposite for Regenerative Medicine Applications
. Regenerative Engineering and Translational Medicine 2019
362-372. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Abstract: Development of mechanically stable and multifunctional biomaterials for sensing, repair, and regeneration applications is of great importance. Herein, we investigate the potential of recombinant resilin-like (Res) nanocomposite elastomer as a template biomaterial for regenerative devices such as adhesive bandages or films, electrospun fibers, screws, sutures, and drug delivery vehicles. Exon I (Rec1) from the native resilin gene of Drosophila (CG15920) was fused with collagen-binding domain (ColBD) from Clostridium histolyticum and expressed in Komagataella pastoris (formerly Pichia pastoris). The 100% binding of Resilin-ColBD (Res-ColBD) to collagen I was shown at a 1:1 ratio by mass. Atomic force microscopy results in force mode show a bimodal profile for the ColBD-binding interactions. Moreover, based on the force-volume map, Res-ColBD adhesion to collagen was statistically significantly higher than resilin without ColBD. Lay Summary: Designing advanced biomaterials that will not only withstand the repetitive mechanical loading and flexibility of tissues but also retain biochemical and biophysical interactions remains challenging. The combination of physical, biological, and chemical cues is vital for disease regulation, healing, and ultimately complete regeneration of functional human tissues. Resilin is a super elastic and highly resilient natural protein with good biocompatibility but lacks specific biological and chemical cues. Therefore, resilin decorated with collagen I–binding domain is proposed as a functional nanocomposite template biomaterial. Collagen I is an ideal binding target, as it is the most abundant structural protein found in human body including scars that affect unwanted adhesion. Future Work: Musculoskeletal-related injuries and disorders are the second largest cause of disabilities worldwide. Significant pain, neurological discomfort, limited mobility, and substantial financial burden are associated with these disorders. Thus, biocompatible materials comprised of resilin with collagen-binding domain, such as films adhesive bandages (films, fiber matts, or hydrogels), sutures, screws and rods, three-dimensional scaffolds, and delivery vehicles, will be designed and evaluated for multiple musculoskeletal-related regeneration applications. © 2019, The Regenerative Engineering Society.
The transcriptome of potato tuber phellogen reveals cellular functions of cork cambium and genes involved in periderm formation and maturation
. Sci Rep 2019
The periderm is a protective corky tissue that is formed through the cambial activity of phellogen cells, when the outer epidermis is damaged. Timely periderm formation is critical to prevent pathogen invasion and water loss. The outer layers of the potato periderm, the tuber skin, serves as a model to study cork development. Early in tuber development the phellogen becomes active and produces the skin. During tuber maturation it becomes inactive and the skin adheres to the tuber flesh. The characterization of potato phellogen may contribute to the management of costly agricultural problems related to incomplete skin-set and the resulting skinning injuries, and provide us with new knowledge regarding cork development in planta. A transcriptome of potato tuber phellogen isolated by laser capture microdissection indicated similarity to vascular cambium and the cork from trees. Highly expressed genes and transcription factors indicated that phellogen activation involves cytokinesis and gene reprograming for the establishment of a dedifferentiation state; whereas inactivation is characterized by activity of genes that direct organ identity in meristem and cell-wall modifications. The expression of selected genes was analyzed using qPCR in native and wound periderm at distinct developmental stages. This allowed the identification of genes involved in periderm formation and maturation.
In vitro and preclinical characterisation of compressed, macro-porous and collagen coated poly-ε-caprolactone electro-spun scaffolds
. Biomed Mater 2019
Low in macro-porosity electro-spun scaffolds are often associated with foreign body response, whilst macro-porous electro-spun scaffolds have low mechanical integrity. Herein, compressed, macro-porous and collagen (bovine Achilles tendon and human recombinant) coated electro-spun poly-ε-caprolactone scaffolds were developed and their biomechanical, in vitro and in vivo properties were assessed. Collagen coating, independently of the source, did not significantly affect the biomechanical properties of the scaffolds. Although no significant difference in cell viability was observed between the groups, collagen coated scaffolds induced significantly higher DNA concentration. In vivo, no signs of adverse tissue effect were observed in any of the groups and all groups appeared to equally integrate into the subcutaneous tissue. It is evidenced that macro-porous poly-ε-caprolactone electro-spun meshes with adequate mechanical properties and acceptable host response can be developed for biomedical applications.
Cellulose Nanocrystals (CNCs) Induced Crystallization of Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) Super Performing Nanocomposite Films. Macromol Biosci 2019
This study is aimed to explore the properties of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC)/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) composite films with and without 1,2,3,4-butane tetracarboxylic acid (BTCA), a nontoxic crosslinker. CNC and CNC-PVA nanocomposite films are prepared using solution-casting technique. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses show that crosslinking increased the glass transition temperature but reduced the melting temperature and crystallinity. Furthermore, high CNC concentrations in the PVA matrix interfere with PVA crystallinity, whereas in specific ratio between CNC and PVA, two different crystalline structures are observed within the PVA matrix. Film surfaces and fracture topographies characterized using scanning electron microscope indicate that at certain CNC-PVA ratios, micron-sized needle-like crystals have formed. These crystalline structures correlate with the remarkable improvement in mechanical properties of the CNC-PVA nanocomposite films, that is, enhanced tensile strain and toughness to 570% and 202 MJ m , respectively, as compared to pristine PVA. BTCA enhances the tensile strain, ultimate tensile stress, toughness, and modulus of CNC films compared to pristine CNC films. Water absorption of crosslinked CNC and CNC-PVA nanocomposite films is significantly reduced, while film transparency is significantly improved as a function of PVA and crosslinker content. The presented results indicate that CNC-PVA nanocomposite films may find applications in packaging, and though materials applications.
The Modification of Cell Wall Properties by Expression of Recombinant Resilin in Transgenic Plants
, 310 - 318. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Plant tissue is composed of many different types of cells. Plant cells required to withstand mechanical pressure, such as vessel elements and fibers, have a secondary cell wall consisting of polysaccharides and lignin, which strengthen the cell wall structure and stabilize the cell shape. Previous attempts to alter the properties of the cell wall have mainly focused on reducing the amount of lignin or altering its structure in order to ease its extraction from raw woody materials for the pulp and paper and biorefinery industries. In this work, we propose the in vivo modification of the cell wall structure and mechanical properties by the introduction of resilin, an elastic protein that is able to crosslink with lignin monomers during cell wall synthesis. The effects of resilin were studied in transgenic eucalyptus plants. The protein was detected within the cell wall and its expression led to an increase in the elastic modulus of transgenic stems. In addition, transgenic stems displayed a higher yield point and toughness, indicating that they were able to absorb more energy before breaking.
Surface Charge Influence on the Phase Separation and Viscosity of Cellulose Nanocrystals
. LangmuirLangmuir 2018
, 3925 - 3933. Publisher's VersionAbstract
A series of four cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) suspensions were prepared from bleached softwood kraft pulp using different conditions of sulfuric acid hydrolysis. The CNCs were identical in size (95 nm in length × 5 nm in width) but had different surface charges corresponding to the harshness of the hydrolysis conditions. Consequently, it was possible to isolate the effects of surface charge on the self-assembly and viscosity of the CNC suspensions across surface charges ranging from 0.27%S to 0.89%S. The four suspensions (never-dried, free of added electrolyte) all underwent liquid crystalline phase separation, but the concentration onset for the emergence of the chiral nematic phase shifted to higher values with increasing surface charge. Similarly, suspension viscosity was also influenced by surface charge, with suspensions of lower surface charge CNCs more viscous and tending to gel at lower concentrations. The properties of the suspensions were interpreted in terms of the increase in effective diameter of the nanocrystals due to the surface electrostatic repulsion of the negative sulfate half-esters, as modified by the screening effects of the H+ counterions in the suspensions. The results suggest that there is a threshold surface charge density (∼0.3%S) above which effective volume considerations are dominant across the concentration range relevant to liquid crystalline phase formation. Above this threshold value, phase separation occurs at the same effective volume fraction of CNCs (∼10 vol %), with a corresponding increase in critical concentration due to the decrease in effective diameter that occurs with increasing surface charge. Below or near this threshold value, the formation of end-to-end aggregates may favor gelation and interfere with ordered phase formation.A series of four cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) suspensions were prepared from bleached softwood kraft pulp using different conditions of sulfuric acid hydrolysis. The CNCs were identical in size (95 nm in length × 5 nm in width) but had different surface charges corresponding to the harshness of the hydrolysis conditions. Consequently, it was possible to isolate the effects of surface charge on the self-assembly and viscosity of the CNC suspensions across surface charges ranging from 0.27%S to 0.89%S. The four suspensions (never-dried, free of added electrolyte) all underwent liquid crystalline phase separation, but the concentration onset for the emergence of the chiral nematic phase shifted to higher values with increasing surface charge. Similarly, suspension viscosity was also influenced by surface charge, with suspensions of lower surface charge CNCs more viscous and tending to gel at lower concentrations. The properties of the suspensions were interpreted in terms of the increase in effective diameter of the nanocrystals due to the surface electrostatic repulsion of the negative sulfate half-esters, as modified by the screening effects of the H+ counterions in the suspensions. The results suggest that there is a threshold surface charge density (∼0.3%S) above which effective volume considerations are dominant across the concentration range relevant to liquid crystalline phase formation. Above this threshold value, phase separation occurs at the same effective volume fraction of CNCs (∼10 vol %), with a corresponding increase in critical concentration due to the decrease in effective diameter that occurs with increasing surface charge. Below or near this threshold value, the formation of end-to-end aggregates may favor gelation and interfere with ordered phase formation.
Stable White Light-Emitting Biocomposite Films
. Advanced Functional Materials 2018
, 1706967. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Abstract The demonstration of reliable and stable white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is one of the main technological challenges of the LED industry. This is usually accomplished by incorporation of light-emitting rare-earth elements (REEs) compounds within an external polymeric coating of a blue LED allowing the generation of white light. However, due to both environmental and cost issues, the development of low-cost REE-free coatings, which exhibit competitive performance compared to conventional white LED is of great importance. In this work, the formation of an REE-free white LED coating is demonstrated. This biocomposite material, composed of biological (crystalline nanocellulose and porcine gastric mucin) and organic (light-emitting dyes) compounds, exhibits excellent optical and mechanical properties as well as resistance to heat, humidity, and UV radiation. The coating is further used to demonstrate a working white LED by incorporating it within a commercial blue LED.
SP1 based self-assembled selective molecular nanochannels
. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry 2018
, 220 - 225. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Controlling the permeability and porosity of an inorganic layer using biomolecule building blocks has raised interest for nanotechnological applications. The challenge lies mostly in the fabrication, usually a long, expensive and tedious process, involving many steps. Using biomaterials for this purpose is highly appealing; due to both ease of fabrication and the final output, that contains a bioelement. The biomolecule, specifically, stable protein 1 (SP1), serving as the scaffold for our pattern, is of great stability and durability, and presents size, charge and structural selectivity towards electroactive species. Here, we demonstrate the ability of SP1 to form a rigid template within a sol-gel matrix, allowing selective electron transfer to the gold electrode. Specifically, a thiolated SP1 was first adsorbed on a gold surface followed by filling the non-occupied areas by sol-gel. The latter was electrochemically deposited. The various steps were carefully characterized. Finally, we studied the electrochemistry of numerous redox couple at the Au/SP1/sol-gel interface and found that the nanochannel array shows charge and structural selectivity, which is based on the interactions between the redox species and the functionalities of SP1. The resulted surface shows promise towards electrochemical sensing applications.
Stable Expression of Adalimumab in Nicotiana tabacum. Mol Biotechnol 2018
Production of monoclonal antibodies and pharmaceutical proteins in transgenic plants has been the focus of many research efforts for close to 30 years. Use of plants as bioreactors reduces large-scale production costs and minimizes risk for human pathogens contamination. Stable nuclear transformation of the plant genome offers a clear advantage in agricultural protein production platforms, limited only by the number of hectares that can be cultivated. We report here, for the first time, successful and stable expression of adalimumab in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum plants. The plant-derived adalimumab proved fully active and was shown to rescue L929 cells from the in vitro lethal effect of rhTNFα just as effectively as commercially available CHO-derived adalimumab (Humira). These results indicate that agricultural biopharming is an efficient alternative to mammalian cell-based expression platforms for the large-scale production of recombinant antibodies.
Nanoscale electromechanical properties of template-assisted hierarchical self-assembled cellulose nanofibers. Nanoscale 2018
Cellulose, a major constituent of our natural environment and a structured biodegradable biopolymer, has been shown to exhibit shear piezoelectricity with potential applications in energy harvesters, biomedical sensors, electro-active displays and actuators. In this regard, a high-aspect ratio nanofiber geometry is particularly attractive as flexing or bending will likely produce a larger piezoelectric response as compared to axial deformation in this material. Here we report self-assembled cellulose nanofibers (SA-CNFs) fabricated using a template-wetting process, whereby parent cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) introduced into a nanoporous template assemble to form rod-like cellulose clusters, which then assemble into SA-CNFs. Annealed SA-CNFs were found to exhibit an anisotropic shear piezoelectric response as directly measured using non-destructive piezo-response force microscopy (ND-PFM). We interpret these results in light of the distinct hierarchical structure in our template-grown SA-CNFs as revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM).
. Fiber Society 2017 Fall Meeting and Technical Conference and International Symposium on Materials from Renewables, ISMR 2017: Advanced, Smart, and Sustainable Polymers, Fibers, and Textiles
, 2017. Publisher's Version
Multifunctional Cellulosic Scaffolds from Modified Cellulose Nanocrystals
. ACS Applied Materials & InterfacesACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2017
2010 - 2015. Publisher's VersionAbstract
A biobased cellulosic scaffold material was made through freeze-drying ice-templating of functionalized cellulosic nanomaterials. The resulting interconnected highly porous scaffold was primarily composed of highly esterified, strong network of ultrathin cellulosic layers. The prepared cellulosic scaffold material displayed multifunctional properties of hydrophobicity, oleophilicity and lipophilicity, which could selectively absorb milkfat, hydrophobic proteins, various organic solvents and oils. Diverse potential for the structural and medical applications, such as tissue engineering, drug delivery, and oil and fat accumulation are proposed.A biobased cellulosic scaffold material was made through freeze-drying ice-templating of functionalized cellulosic nanomaterials. The resulting interconnected highly porous scaffold was primarily composed of highly esterified, strong network of ultrathin cellulosic layers. The prepared cellulosic scaffold material displayed multifunctional properties of hydrophobicity, oleophilicity and lipophilicity, which could selectively absorb milkfat, hydrophobic proteins, various organic solvents and oils. Diverse potential for the structural and medical applications, such as tissue engineering, drug delivery, and oil and fat accumulation are proposed.