Transcriptome analysis highlights nuclear control of chloroplast development in the shoot apex
. Sci Rep 2018
8881. Publisher's VersionAbstract
In dicots, the key developmental process by which immature plastids differentiate into photosynthetically competent chloroplasts commences in the shoot apical meristem (SAM), within the shoot apex. Using laser-capture microdissection and single-cell RNA sequencing methodology, we studied the changes in the transcriptome along the chloroplast developmental pathway in the shoot apex of tomato seedlings. The analysis revealed the presence of transcripts for different chloroplast functions already in the stem cell-containing region of the SAM. Thereafter, an en masse up-regulation of genes encoding for various proteins occurs, including chloroplast ribosomal proteins and proteins involved in photosynthesis, photoprotection and detoxification of reactive oxygen species. The results highlight transcriptional events that operate during chloroplast biogenesis, leading to the rapid establishment of photosynthetic competence.
Differential impacts of FtsZ proteins on plastid division in the shoot apex of Arabidopsis. Dev Biol 2018
FtsZ proteins of the FtsZ1 and FtsZ2 families play important roles in the initiation and progression of plastid division in plants and green algae. Arabidopsis possesses a single FTSZ1 member and two FTSZ2 members, FTSZ2-1 and FTSZ2-2. The contribution of these to chloroplast division and partitioning has been mostly investigated in leaf mesophyll tissues. Here, we assessed the involvement of the three FtsZs in plastid division at earlier stages of chloroplast differentiation. To this end, we studied the effect of the absence of specific FtsZ proteins on plastids in the vegetative shoot apex, where the proplastid-to-chloroplast transition takes place. We found that the relative contribution of the two major leaf FtsZ isoforms, FtsZ1 and FtsZ2-1, to the division process varies with cell lineage and position within the shoot apex. While FtsZ2-1 dominates division in the L1 and L3 layers of the shoot apical meristem (SAM), in the L2 layer, FtsZ1 and FtsZ2-1 contribute equally toward the process. Depletion of the third isoform, FtsZ2-2, generally resulted in stronger effects in the shoot apex than those observed in mature leaves. The implications of these findings, along with additional observations made in this work, to our understanding of the mechanisms and regulation of plastid proliferation in the shoot apex are discussed.
Lumenal exposed regions of the D1 protein of PSII are long enough to be degraded by the chloroplast Deg1 protease. Sci Rep 2018
Degradation of the D1 protein of photosystem II (PSII) reaction center is a pre-requisite for the repair cycle from photoinhibition. Two types of thylakoid proteases, FtsH and Deg, have been demonstrated to participate in this process. However, the location of the proteolytic sites of the lumenal Deg1 protease within its internal sphere raised the question whether the lumenal-exposed regions of D1 are indeed long enough to reach these sites. Implanting these regions into the stable GFP rendered it sensitive to the presence of Deg1 in vitro, demonstrating that the flexible regions of D1 that protrude into the lumen can penetrate through the three side-openings of Deg1 and reach its internal proteolytic sites. This mode of action, facilitating cooperation between proteases on both sides of the thylakoid membranes, should be applicable to the degradation of other integral thylakoid membrane proteins as well.
Differential Roles of the Thylakoid Lumenal Deg Protease Homologs in Chloroplast Proteostasis
. Plant Physiol 2018
Deg proteases are involved in protein quality control in prokaryotes. Of the three Arabidopsis () homologs, Deg1, Deg5, and Deg8, located in the thylakoid lumen, Deg1 forms a homohexamer, whereas Deg5 and Deg8 form a heterocomplex. Both Deg1 and Deg5-Deg8 were shown separately to degrade photosynthetic proteins during photoinhibition. To investigate whether Deg1 and Deg5-Deg8 are redundant, a full set of Arabidopsis knockout mutants were generated and their phenotypes were compared. Under all conditions tested, mutants were affected more than the wild type and and mutants. Moreover, overexpression of Deg5-Deg8 could only partially compensate for the loss of Deg1. Comparative proteomics of mutants revealed moderate up-regulation of thylakoid proteins involved in photoprotection, assembly, repair, and housekeeping and down-regulation of those that form photosynthetic complexes. Quantification of protein levels in the wild type revealed that Deg1 was 2-fold more abundant than Deg5-Deg8. Moreover, recombinant Deg1 displayed higher in vitro proteolytic activity. Affinity enrichment assays revealed that Deg1 was precipitated with very few interacting proteins, whereas Deg5-Deg8 was associated with a number of thylakoid proteins, including D1, OECs, LHCBs, Cyt , and NDH subunits, thus implying that Deg5-Deg8 is capable of binding substrates but is unable to degrade them efficiently. This work suggests that differences in protein abundance and proteolytic activity underlie the differential importance of Deg1 and Deg5-Deg8 protease complexes observed in vivo.