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Rabinowitch, H. D. ; Brewster, J. L. Onions and allied crops: Volume I: Botany, physiology, and genetics; Onions and Allied Crops: Volume I: Botany, Physiology, and Genetics; 2018; pp. 1-273. Publisher's VersionAbstract
First Published in 2018. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an Informa company. © 1990 by CRC Press, LLC.
Rabinowitch, H. D. Physiology of flowering; Onions and Allied Crops: Volume I: Botany, Physiology, and Genetics; 2018; pp. 113-134. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Flowering of onions is of great economical importance during the two growing seasons. When grown for bulbs, bolting plants - those which flower during the first season - are of very poor quality. The flower stalk of the onion, as in all Alliums, is an apical extension of the stem, but without histological differentiation into nodes and intern odes. Following induction and initiation, the differentiated central axis starts protruding and the scape is formed. The flower stalks of most commercially available cultivars reach a final length of 1 to 2 m, but flowering may also occur, though very rarely, within the fleshy scales of the bulb. The buds are grouped in small cymes of five to ten flowers each; the umbel is entirely enveloped by a spathe. This thin sheathing bract splits open when flowering begins. Temperature, day length and a level of nitrogen fertilizer seem to be the important environmental factors affecting flowering of the bulb onion. © 1990 by CRC Press, LLC.
Rabinowitch, H. D. Seed development; Onions and Allied Crops: Volume I: Botany, Physiology, and Genetics; 2018; pp. 151-159. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Onion seed set and development are markedly affected by a number of factors, the most important ones being growth conditions, availability of pollinating insects, and the genetic make up of the individual plant. Cross-pollination is predominant in onions and leeks, in chives and most probably also in other alliums. However, onions are self-compatible, and regardless of earlier accounts, protandry does not prevent their self-pollination. In onions, pollen shed begins at anthesis and continues at irregular intervals for the next 24 to 36 h and may last up to 2 d. High temperatures and air humidities below 70% accelerate the process. Twelve to twenty four hours after pollination, the first pollen tubes with two sperm-nuclei, enter the micropyle. Onion seeds are produced in a wide range of environments, and weather conditions may change considerably during seed growth and ripening on the mother plant. These influence seed composition and subsequent performance. © 1990 by CRC Press, LLC.
Ben Michael, T. ; Shemesh-Mayer, E. ; Kimhi, S. ; Gershberg, C. ; Forer, I. ; Tavares de Ávila, V. ; Rabinowitch, H. D. ; Kamenetsky Goldstein, R. Temporal and spatial effect of low pre-planting temperatures on plant architecture and flowering in bolting garlic. Scientia Horticulturae 2018, 242, 69-75. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Garlic flowering and bulbing are prone to photo-thermal regulation during its annual cycle. As in many other geophytes, these pathways are parallel but competitive, and can be manipulated by the environment. Both flowering and bulbing are of paramount physiological value, and of great horticultural interest. We argue that, in bolting garlic, differential regulation of only one of the two pathways by pre-planting vernalization is unfeasible, and that garlic's response to cold shows an optimal curve. Within limits, long vernalization treatments have resulted in rapid development of ‘Reproductive and Bulbing Phenotype’ with fast leaf elongation, early transition of the apical meristem to the reproductive state, development of axillary buds, flowering and bulbing. Low temperatures trigger primary signaling components, thus modulating organogenesis even under a relatively short photoperiod. We therefore propose that under a suboptimal photoperiod, favorable temperatures could substitute the plant's requirements for photoperiod and signal for the meristem transition, flowering and bulbing. The optimum response of the studied genotype was obtained after vernalization of four weeks at 4 °C. No transition of the apical meristem was evident in plants exposed to only short or no vernalization, namely the apex remained vegetative. These plants continuously produced foliage leaves, thus forming a “Leafy Phenotype” which did not branch, bulb or flower. Comprehension of the plant's response to environment is expected to facilitate physiological manipulations on the production of either bulbs or true seeds in garlic. © 2018
Mozes-Koch, R. ; Tanne, E. ; Brodezki, A. ; Yehuda, R. ; Gover, O. ; Rabinowitch, H. D. ; Sela, I. Expression of the entire polyhydroxybutyrate operon of in plants. J Biol Eng 2017, 11, 44.Abstract
Background: Previously we demonstrated that an entire bacterial operon (the PRN operon) is expressible in plants when driven by the Tomato -yellow-leaf-curl-virus (TYLCV) -derived universal vector IL-60.Petroleum-derived plastics are not degradable, and are therefore harmful to the environment. Fermentation of bacteria carrying operons for polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) produces degradable bioplastics which are environmentally friendly. However, bacterial production of bioplastics is not cost-effective, and attention is turning to their production in plants. Such "green" plastics would be less expensive and environmentally friendly. Hence, attempts are being made to substitute petroleum-derived plastics with "green" plastics. However, transformation of plants with genes of operons producing bioplastics has deleterious effects. Transformation of plastids does not cause deleterious effects, however it is a complicated procedures. Results: We have developed another TYLCV-based vector (SE100) and show that yet another bacterial operon (the phaCAB operon) when driven by SE100 is also expressed in plants. We employed the combination of SE100 and the phaCAB operon to drive the operon to the plastids and produce in plants a biodegradable plastic [polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)].Here we indicate that the bacterial operon (phaCAB), when driven by the newly developed universal plant vector SE100 is directed to chloroplasts and produces in plants PHB, a leading PHA. The PHB-producing plants circumvent the need for complicated technical procedures. Conclusion: The viral vector system SE100 facilitated the production of the bio-plastic poly-3-hydroxybutyrate. This was achieved by using the full pha-CAB operon indicating that TYLCV based system can transcribe and translate genes from bacterial operons controlled by a single cis element. Our data hints to the participation of the chloroplasts in these processes.
Rotem, N. ; Shtein, C. ; Rosner, A. ; Levy, D. ; Rabinowitch, H. D. Detection and Differentiation of Potato Virus Y Strains by Melting Analysis of an Oligonucleotide Virus Probe. American Journal of Potato Research 2016, 93, 620-625. Publisher's VersionAbstract
A novel simple, fast qualitative method for detection and differentiation of PVY strains in potatoes by the LightCycler technology is described. Fluorescent-labeled probe designed to contain variable degree of homology with a ‘target sequence’ of several known reference PVY strains was annealed to PCR products of these viruses followed by a graded melting analysis. The specific characteristics of the melting curves enable the detection, distinction and differentiation of each of following four known PVY strains O-FL, O-RB, N and NTN, in a single reaction obviating the need for size or nucleotide sequence analyses. In addition, it was demonstrated that virus extracts from plants infected with more than one strain can be resolved using this procedure. The melting-curves of extracts from 55 market size tubers harvested randomly from commercial fields and compared with those of the reference virus strains, revealed the presence of O-FL, O-RB and NTN strains of PVY. © 2016, The Potato Association of America.
Kamenetsky, R. ; Rabinowitch, H. D. Physiology of Domesticated Alliums: Onions, Garlic, Leek, and Minor Crops; Encyclopedia of Applied Plant Sciences; 2016; Vol. 3, pp. 255-261. Publisher's VersionAbstract
More than 50 species of the genus Allium have been cultivated worldwide for sustenance, flavor, and medicinal purposes, as well as for ornamentals, from the tropics to the temperate zone. In most alliums, intact tissues contain odorless, nonvolatile sulfur-containing molecules that upon cells' disruption break down enzymatically to form volatile flavor compounds that are responsible for the characteristic odor and taste of these species. The genetic makeup, photoperiod, and both storage and growth temperatures are the main factors controlling bulbing and florogenesis in these plant species. The most common Allium food crops are bulb onion garlic, leek, shallot, chives, and Welsh onion. Most fertile cultivated alliums are raised from seed, transplants, or sets. However, some sterile species, such as garlic, elephant garlic, rocambole tree onion, topsetting onions, and shallot are propagated vegetatively. During millennia of cultivation, no natural co-evolution with biotic and abiotic agents has taken place. Hence, most cultivated alliums lack many important traits, including resistance to pests and environmental stresses. Current efforts and employment of both classical and novel tools for genetic and plant physiology studies are expected to accelerate improvements in terms of distribution, yield, and quality of these important crops. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Levy, D. ; Rabinowitch, H. D. Potatoes; Encyclopedia of Applied Plant Sciences; 2016; Vol. 3, pp. 39-44. Publisher's VersionAbstract
A concise description of the history, classification, cytology, and botany of potato is presented. The effects of the environment on the morphology, physiology, and development of the potato plant and the adverse effects of high temperatures, drought, and salinity on growth, tuber development, and tuber quality are described. Tuber dormancy and its control in association with storage and with 'seed' tubers' vigor are discussed. Principles of crop production, storage, and tuber quality are presented. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.