Sequential PCA-based classification of mediterranean forest plants using airborne hyperspectral remote sensing
. Remote Sensing 2019
. Publisher's VersionAbstract
In recent years, hyperspectral remote sensing (HRS) has become common practice for remote analyses of the physiognomy and composition of forests. Supervised classification is often used for this purpose, but demands intensive sampling and analyses, whereas unsupervised classification often requires information retrieval out of the large HRS datasets, thereby not realizing the full potential of the technology. An improved principal component analysis-based classification (PCABC) scheme is presented and intended to provide accurate and sequential image-based unsupervised classification of Mediterranean forest species. In this study, unsupervised classification and reduction of data size are performed simultaneously by applying binary sequential thresholding to principal components, each time on a spatially reduced subscene that includes the entire spectral range. The methodology was tested on HRS data acquired by the airborne AisaFENIX HRS sensor over a Mediterranean forest in Mount Horshan, Israel. A comprehensive field-validation survey was performed, sampling 257 randomly selected individual plants. The PCABC provided highly improved results compared to the traditional unsupervised classification methodologies, reaching an overall accuracy of 91%. The presented approach may contribute to improved monitoring, management, and conservation of Mediterranean and similar forests. © 2019 by the authors.
Symbiotic dinitrogen fixation is seasonal and strongly regulated in water-limited environments
. New Phytologist 2019
, 1866-1877. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Plants, especially perennials, growing in drylands and seasonally dry ecosystems are uniquely adapted to dry conditions. Legume shrubs and trees, capable of symbiotic dinitrogen (N 2 ) fixation, often dominate in drylands. However, the strategies that allow symbiotic fixation in these ecosystems, and their influence on the nitrogen cycle, are largely unresolved. We evaluated the climatic, biogeochemical and ontogenetic factors influencing nitrogen fixation in an abundant Mediterranean legume shrub, Calicotome villosa. We measured nodulation, fixation rate, nitrogen allocation and soil biogeochemistry in three field sites over a full year. A controlled experiment evaluated differences in plant regulation of fixation as a function of soil nutrient availability and seedling and adult developmental stages. We found a strong seasonal pattern, shifting between high fixation rates during the rainy season at flowering and seed-set times to almost none in the rainless season. Under controlled conditions, plants downregulated fixation in response to soil nitrogen availability, but this response was stronger in seedlings than in adult shrubs. Finally, we did not find elevated soil nitrogen under N 2 -fixing shrubs. We conclude that seasonal nitrogen fixation, regulation of fixation, and nitrogen conservation are key adaptations influencing the dominance of dryland legumes in the community, with broader consequences on the ecosystem nitrogen cycle. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust