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in Agriculture
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Israeli, A. ; Ben-Herzel, O. ; Burko, Y. ; Shwartz, I. ; Ben-Gera, H. ; Harpaz-Saad, S. ; Bar, M. ; Efroni, I. ; Ori, N. Coordination of differentiation rate and local patterning in compound-leaf development. New Phytologist 2020, n/a. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Summary The variability in leaf form in nature is immense. Leaf patterning occurs by differential growth, taking place during a limited window of morphogenetic activity at the leaf marginal meristem. While many regulators have been implicated in the designation of the morphogenetic window and in leaf patterning, how these effectors interact to generate a particular form is still not well understood. We investigated the interaction among different effectors of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) compound-leaf development, using genetic and molecular analyses. Mutations in the tomato auxin response factor SlARF5/SlMP, which normally promotes leaflet formation, suppressed the increased leaf complexity of mutants with extended morphogenetic window. Impaired activity of the NAC/CUC transcription factor GOBLET (GOB), which specifies leaflet boundaries, also reduced leaf complexity in these backgrounds. Analysis of genetic interactions showed that the patterning factors SlMP, GOB and the MYB transcription factor LYRATE (LYR) coordinately regulate leaf patterning by modulating in parallel different aspects of leaflet formation and shaping, This work places an array of developmental regulators in a morphogenetic context. It reveals how organ-level differentiation rate and local growth are coordinated to sculpture an organ. These concepts are applicable to the coordination of pattering and differentiation in other species and developmental processes.
Fahima, A. ; Levinkron, S. ; Maytal, Y. ; Hugger, A. ; Lax, I. ; Huang, X. ; Eyal, Y. ; Lichter, A. ; Goren, M. ; Stern, R. A. ; et al. Cytokinin treatment modifies litchi fruit pericarp anatomy leading to reduced susceptibility to post-harvest pericarp browning. Plant Sci 2019, 283, 41-50.Abstract
Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) is a subtropical fruit known for its attractive red pericarp color, semi-translucent white aril and unique flavor and aroma. Rapid post-harvest pericarp browning strictly limits litchi fruit marketing. In the current research, we hypothesized that modification of litchi fruit pericarp anatomy by hormone application may reduce fruit susceptibility to post-harvest pericarp browning. In this context, we hypothesized that cytokinin treatment, known to induce cell division, may yield fruit with thicker pericarp and reduced susceptibility for fruit surface micro-crack formation, water loss and post-harvest pericarp browning. Exogenous cytokinin treatment was applied at different stages along the course of litchi fruit development and the effect on fruit pericarp anatomy, fruit maturation and postharvest pericarp browning was investigated. Interestingly, cytokinin treatment, applied 4 weeks after full female bloom (WFB), during the phase of pericarp cell division, led to mature fruit with thicker pericarp, reduced rate of post-harvest water loss and reduced susceptibility to post-harvest pericarp browning, as compared to non-treated control fruit. Histological sections ascribe the difference in pericarp anatomy to increased cell proliferation in the parenchymatic tissue and the highly-lignified brachysclereid cell layer. In contrast, exogenous cytokinin treatment applied 7 WFB, following the phase of pericarp cell division, significantly increased epidermal-cell proliferation but had no significant effect on overall fruit pericarp thickness and only minor affect on post-harvest water loss or pericarp browning. Interestingly, the late cytokinin treatment also significantly postponed fruit maturation-associated anthocyanin accumulation and chlorophyll degradation, as previously reported, but had no effect on other parameters of fruit maturation, like total soluble sugars and total titratable acids typically modified during aril maturation. In conclusion, exogenous cytokinin treatment at different stages in fruit development differentially modifies litchi fruit pericarp anatomy by induction of cell-type specific cell proliferation. Early cytokinin treatment during the phase of pericarp cell division may prolong litchi fruit storage by reducing fruit susceptibility to post-harvest water loss and pericarp browning.
Ben-Tov, D. ; Idan-Molakandov, A. ; Hugger, A. ; Ben-Shlush, I. ; Günl, M. ; Yang, B. ; Usadel, B. ; Harpaz-Saad, S. The role of COBRA-LIKE 2 function, as part of the complex network of interacting pathways regulating Arabidopsis seed mucilage polysaccharide matrix organization. Plant J 2018, 94, 497-512.Abstract
The production of hydrophilic mucilage along the course of seed coat epidermal cell differentiation is a common adaptation in angiosperms. Previous studies have identified COBRA-LIKE 2 (COBL2), a member of the COBRA-LIKE gene family, as a novel component required for crystalline cellulose deposition in seed coat epidermal cells. In recent years, Arabidopsis seed coat epidermal cells (SCEs), also called mucilage secretory cells, have emerged as a powerful model system for the study of plant cell wall components biosynthesis, secretion, assembly and de muro modification. Despite accumulating data, the molecular mechanism of COBL function remains largely unknown. In the current research, we utilized genetic interactions to study the role of COBL2 as part of the protein network required for seed mucilage production. Using correlative phenotyping of structural and biochemical characteristics, unique features of the cobl2 extruded mucilage are revealed, including: 'unraveled' ray morphology, loss of primary cell wall 'pyramidal' organization, reduced Ruthenium red staining intensity of the adherent mucilage layer, and increased levels of the monosaccharides arabinose and galactose. Examination of the cobl2cesa5 double mutant provides insight into the interface between COBL function and cellulose deposition. Additionally, genetic interactions between cobl2 and fei1fei2 as well as between each of these mutants to mucilage-modified 2 (mum2) suggest that COBL2 functions independently of the FEI-SOS pathway. Altogether, the presented data place COBL2 within the complex protein network required for cell wall deposition in the context of seed mucilage and introduce new methodology expending the seed mucilage phenotyping toolbox.
Shtein, I. ; Popper, Z. A. ; Harpaz-Saad, S. Permanently open stomata of aquatic angiosperms display modified cellulose crystallinity patterns. Plant Signaling & Behavior 2017, 12, e1339858. Publisher's VersionAbstract
ABSTRACTMost floating aquatic plants have stomata on their upper leaf surfaces, and usually their stomata are permanently open. We previously identified 3 distinct crystallinity patterns in stomatal cell walls, with angiosperm kidney-shaped stomata having the highest crystallinity in the polar end walls as well as the adjacent polar regions of the guard cells. A numerical bio-mechanical model suggested that the high crystallinity areas are localized to regions where the highest stress is imposed. Here, stomatal cell wall crystallinity was examined in 4 floating plants from 2 different taxa: basal angiosperms from the ANITA grade and monocots. It appears that the non-functional stomata of floating plants display reduced crystallinity in the polar regions as compared with high crystallinity of the ventral (inner) walls. Thus their guard cells are both less flexible and less stress resistant. Our findings suggest that the pattern of cellulose crystallinity in stomata of floating plants from different families was altered as a consequence of similar evolutionary pressures.
Shtein, I. ; Shelef, Y. ; Marom, Z. ; Zelinger, E. ; Schwartz, A. ; Popper, Z. A. ; Bar-On, B. ; Harpaz-Saad, S. Stomatal cell wall composition: distinctive structural patterns associated with different phylogenetic groups. Ann Bot 2017, 119, 1021-1033.Abstract
Background and Aims: Stomatal morphology and function have remained largely conserved throughout ∼400 million years of plant evolution. However, plant cell wall composition has evolved and changed. Here stomatal cell wall composition was investigated in different vascular plant groups in attempt to understand their possible effect on stomatal function. Methods: A renewed look at stomatal cell walls was attempted utilizing digitalized polar microscopy, confocal microscopy, histology and a numerical finite-elements simulation. The six species of vascular plants chosen for this study cover a broad structural, ecophysiological and evolutionary spectrum: ferns ( Asplenium nidus and Platycerium bifurcatum ) and angiosperms ( Arabidopsis thaliana and Commelina erecta ) with kidney-shaped stomata, and grasses (angiosperms, family Poaceae) with dumbbell-shaped stomata ( Sorghum bicolor and Triticum aestivum ). Key Results: Three distinct patterns of cellulose crystallinity in stomatal cell walls were observed: Type I (kidney-shaped stomata, ferns), Type II (kidney-shaped stomata, angiosperms) and Type III (dumbbell-shaped stomata, grasses). The different stomatal cell wall attributes investigated (cellulose crystallinity, pectins, lignin, phenolics) exhibited taxon-specific patterns, with reciprocal substitution of structural elements in the end-walls of kidney-shaped stomata. According to a numerical bio-mechanical model, the end walls of kidney-shaped stomata develop the highest stresses during opening. Conclusions: The data presented demonstrate for the first time the existence of distinct spatial patterns of varying cellulose crystallinity in guard cell walls. It is also highly intriguing that in angiosperms crystalline cellulose appears to have replaced lignin that occurs in the stomatal end-walls of ferns serving a similar wall strengthening function. Such taxon-specific spatial patterns of cell wall components could imply different biomechanical functions, which in turn could be a consequence of differences in environmental selection along the course of plant evolution.
Ben-Tov, D. ; Abraham, Y. ; Stav, S. ; Thompson, K. ; Loraine, A. ; Elbaum, R. ; de Souza, A. ; Pauly, M. ; Kieber, J. J. ; Harpaz-Saad, S. COBRA-LIKE2, a member of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored COBRA-LIKE family, plays a role in cellulose deposition in arabidopsis seed coat mucilage secretory cells. Plant Physiol 2015, 167, 711-24.Abstract
Differentiation of the maternally derived seed coat epidermal cells into mucilage secretory cells is a common adaptation in angiosperms. Recent studies identified cellulose as an important component of seed mucilage in various species. Cellulose is deposited as a set of rays that radiate from the seed upon mucilage extrusion, serving to anchor the pectic component of seed mucilage to the seed surface. Using transcriptome data encompassing the course of seed development, we identified COBRA-LIKE2 (COBL2), a member of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored COBRA-LIKE gene family in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), as coexpressed with other genes involved in cellulose deposition in mucilage secretory cells. Disruption of the COBL2 gene results in substantial reduction in the rays of cellulose present in seed mucilage, along with an increased solubility of the pectic component of the mucilage. Light birefringence demonstrates a substantial decrease in crystalline cellulose deposition into the cellulosic rays of the cobl2 mutants. Moreover, crystalline cellulose deposition into the radial cell walls and the columella appears substantially compromised, as demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy and in situ quantification of light birefringence. Overall, the cobl2 mutants display about 40% reduction in whole-seed crystalline cellulose content compared with the wild type. These data establish that COBL2 plays a role in the deposition of crystalline cellulose into various secondary cell wall structures during seed coat epidermal cell differentiation.