Contact Us


Mailing Address:
The Robert H. Smith Institute of
Plant Sciences and Genetics
in Agriculture
POB 12, Rehovot 76100, Israel

Administrator: Neomi Maimon 
Tel: 972-8-948-9251,
Fax: 972-8-948-9899,

Director: Prof. David Weiss
Tel: 972-8-948-9436
Fax: 972-8-948-9899


Prof. Raphael (Raffi) Goren


Born 1931, Tel Aviv 
Ph.D. 1963, Hebrew Univ.; Lect. 1966; Sen. Lect. 1969; 
Assoc. Prof. 1974; Prof. 1978;
Dean, Faculty of Agriculture;
Emeritus 2000.

Research Interests

Mode of action of growth regulators in the control of citrus leaf and fruit abscission, with special emphasis on the role of auxin metabolism and translocation in relation to ethylene effects. Auxin catabolism in relation to ethylene effect and tissue sensitivity. Ethylene biosynthesis and action in relation to abscission, senescence, fruit maturity and postharvest behaviour, ethylene perception and signal translocation at the genome levels. Identification of ERS gene in citrus fruit. Flowering and fruiting in citrus as affected by exogenous hormones. Carbohydrate metabolism in relation to fruit development and maturity. Molecular aspects of sucrose glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. 

Research Projects

Funding MOARD:
a. Examining ohysiological-biochemical parameters to assess the activity of naphthaleneacetic acid in fruitlets thinning in various citrus orchards; 
b. Genetic and physiological control of sugar accumulation in citrus; 
c. Evaluation of the inconsistency of biological action of auxins used in citrus orchards to increase fruit size; 
d. Expression of pyrophsphate-fosphofructokinase (PFP) in citrus fruit, and its functional expression in human cells. Cloning and characterization of ppi-phosphofructukinase: A key enzyme in sugar metabolism in citrus fruit; 
e. Effect of ethylene and 1-methylcyclopropene on the postharvest qualities of 'Shamouti' oranges. 

Transport, metabolism and accumulation of sucrose and hexoses into the vacuole of citrus juice cells. Effects of ethylene on Mitogen-Activated-Protein kinase in citrus tissues. Physiological and molecular characterization of the auxin-ethylene interaction in abscission layers of Red Cestrumcut flowers. 

Funding BARD: 
Development of novel ethylene antagonists for the control of production process in agricultural crops. 

Note: MOARD = Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development.  BARD = Bi-national Israel- United States Agricultural Research and Development. 

Abstracts of Current Research

Characterization of ethylene-induced genes (7), Identification the ethylene receptor ERS gene in citrus (1), Intracellular distribution of Fructos-2,6-P2 in citrus juice sacs cells (2), Isolation and cloning of  the genes of the sub-units of phospofructo kinase in grapefruit juice sacs cells as part of a study of sucrose metabolism (4), contrary to earlier knowledge it has been found that citrus juice cells contain the enzymatic machinery to metabolize soluble sugars and that sucrose can serve as energy source (3), providing evidence that ethylene-induced catabolism of Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is stimulated by increased formation of H2O2 (5), 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), an ethylene antagonist, delays fruit ripening and leaf abscission (6). Physiological and biochemical effects of girdling on horticultural tree crops (8). Developing substituted 1-MCP agents block ethylene action (9).

Professional affiliations

Israel society of Botany, American Society of Plant Biology, Plant Growth Regulation Society of America, International Society of Horticulture, International Citrus Society, Japanese Society of Plant Physiology, Scandinavian Society of Plant Physiology, Federation of European Plant Physiologies Societies, Sigma xi.


1964 - Jacobs price on the topics “The development of the ‘Shamouti’ fruit and its relation to bioflavanoid content” (Ph.D Thesis). 1986 - Honorary member of the Israeli Society of Rare Fruit trees, 1987 - Chair: James de Rothschild Professor of Horticulture, 1993 – Fellow, The American Society of Horticultural Science.

Representative articles 

1.Li, C.Y., D. Jacob-Wilk, G.Y. Zhong, R. Goren, D. Holland. 1998. A full-length cDNA encoding an ethylene receptor ERS homologue from citrus. (Accession Number AF092088). Plant Physiol.118:1534.

2.Van Praag E. P. Gonzalez, A. Brune, R. Goren, U. Zehavi, E. Echeverria. 1998. Fru-2,6-P2 and citrate: interacellular distribution in citrus tissues and effect on grapefruit leaf PEP. Bioch. Mol. Biol. & Mol. Biol. International. 44:117-125.

3.Goren, R., M. Huberman, U. Zehavi, M. Chen-Zion and E. Echeverria. 2000. Sugar utilization by citrus juice cells as determined by [14C]-sucrose and [14C]-fructose feeding analyses. Plant Physiol. Biochem. 38:507-515.

4.Kapri, R.,E. Dahan, A. Sadka, U. Zehavi and R. Goren. 2000. Cloning and characterization of PPi-phosphofructokinase from citrus fruit. In: Goren, R and E.E. Goldschmidt, (eds). Acta Hortic. 535:113-118.

5.Winer, L, R.Goren and J. Riov. 2000. Stimulation of the oxidative decarboxylation of indole-3-acetic acid in citrus tissues by ethylene. Plant Growth Regulation 32: 231-237.

6.Zhong, G.Y., M. Huberman, X. Feng, E.C. Sisiler, D. Holland, and R. Goren, 2001. Effect of 1-methylcyclopropane on ethylene-included abscission of citrus leaves and leaf explants. Physiol. Plant. 113:134-141.

7.Zhong, G.Y., R. Goren, J. Riov, E.C. Sisler, and D. Holland, 2001. Characterization of an ethylene-induced esterase gene isolated from Citrus sinensis by competitive hybridization. Physiol. Plant. 113: 267-274.

8.Goren,R., M. Huberman and E.E. Goldschmidt. 2004. Girdling: Physiological and horticultural aspects. In Horticultural Reviews (J. Janick, Ed) John Wiley & Sons, Inc.30:1-36

9. Sisler,E.D., T. Alwan, A, Apelbaum, Margrethe Serek and R. Goren. (2003). 1-Substituted cyclopropenes: Effective blocking agents for the ethylene receptor in plants. Plant Growth Regulation 40:223-228



See also: Raffi_Goren